SHIVA


Lord Shiva-The Infinite

Shiva-The infinite

This is a translation of Swami Vivekananda’s Sanskrit hymn to Shiva, reproduced from his Complete Works 4: 501-04.

Salutation to Shiva! whose glory
Is immeasurable, who resembles sky
In clearness, to whom are attributed
The phenomena of all creation,
The preservation and dissolution
Of the universe! May the devotion,
The burning devotion of this my life
Attach itself to Him, to Shiva, who,
While being Lord of all, transcends Himself.

In whom Lordship is ever established,
Who causes annihilation of delusion,
Whose most surpassing love, made manifest,
Has crowned Him with a name above all names,
The name of “Mahadeva”, the Great God!
Whose warm embrace, of Love personified,
Displays, within the heart, that all power
Is but a semblance and a passing show.

In which the tempest of the whole past blows,
Past Samskaras, stirring the energies
With violence, like water lashed to waves;
In which the dual consciousness of “I” and “Thou”
Plays on: I salute that mind unstable,
Centered in Shiva, the abode of calm!

Where the ideas of parent and produced,
Purified thoughts and endless varied forms,
Merge in the Real one; where the existence ends
Of such conceptions as “within”, “without”–
The wind of modification being stilled–
That Hara I worship, the suppression
Of movements of the mind. Shiva I hail!

The Lord in his aspect as Shiva

Shiva is the name given to God in the last aspect of His threefold nature (Creator-Preserver-Destroyer). Shiva, the Annihilator of maya or delusion, is symbolically represented in the scriptures as the Lord of Renunciates, the King of Yogis. In Hindu art He is always shown with the new moon in His hair, and wearing a garland of hooded snakes, ancient emblem of evil overcome and perfect wisdom. The “single” eye of omniscience is open on His forehead.The bull or Nandi sits opposite him denoting the constellation Taurus.Even if the scipture is distroyed,the Hindu art gives minute detail in the form of images.

Om Namah Shivaya (Panchakshara Mantra)

Om Namah Shivaya (Panchakshara Mantra, five syllables) is a most potent and popular mantra, which is at the heart of the Vedas and Tantra, and is widely used in this and other variations in the Himalayan tradition, as well as by others. While there are other descriptions of the mantra, the following focuses on meanings for mantra meditation leading to Self-Realization.

OM/AUM: The three parts of Om (A-U-M) encompass the three states of waking, dreaming, deep sleep, the three levels of gross, subtle, causal, and the three levels of conscious, unconscious, subconscious, as well as the three universal processes of coming, being, and going. Absolute silence beyond the three levels is the silence after AUM. It also refers to Tripura, the one who live in the “three cities” as in Mahamrityunjaya Mantra, as well as the light referred to in Gayatri Mantra.

Namah/Namaha: Adoration, homage, respect. Nothing is mine (as an individual person); everything is thine (as the Absolute Reality). The three levels of Om, the three worlds of gross, subtle, and causal, along with the three states of waking, dreaming, and deep sleep states of consciousness, as well as the three levels of conscious, unconscious, and subconscious themselves are “not mine” as the true properties of who I really am. Truly, “nothing is mine.” Rather, everything, all of these triads is “thine” or the “other” as the Absolute Reality.

Shivaya/Shiva: That Absolute Reality that is the ground out of which the others emerge. It is that “ink,” so to speak, that is not separate from the many forms which may appear to manifest or be created from that ink. In the Realization of this, one comes to see that he or she is one and the same with the Absolute Reality. The Mahavakyas, the great utterances, are seen to be true. Shiva (the static or ground) and Shakti (the active or creative) are seen to be one and the same. She (Shakti), while one with Shiva is realized in direct experience as the one in the three worlds (Tripura) outlined in Om.

The Five Sacred Syllables: The Om Namah Shivaya mantra has five syllables: na-mah-shi-va-ya (sometimes called six syllable mantra by including Om). Thus, Om Namah Shivaya mantra is called five-syllable mantra, or Panchakshara Mantra (panch means five). Among other things, these five represent the five elements of earth, water, fire, air, and space. Thus, the Om Namah Shivaya mantra leads awareness in the reverse order from manifestation back to the source from which manifestation arose

Shiva,Brahma,Vishnu
Tat,Sat,Aum
Shiva is the Father( Absolute )
Brahma is the divine consciousness(Christ consciousness,Krishna consciousness)
Vishnu is the vibratory sound called Aum heard during meditation.
The three together is called Trinity or Trimurti or the one Supreme.

During meditation the holy sound of Aum resonates in our body,our consciousness gradually become divine


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30 Responses to “SHIVA”

  1. hinduismglance Says:

    The article is yet to be completed.

  2. Ancient history is a matter of interpretation. Calling people names because they present ideas about different versions of history is unnecessary. You can disagree with Ekowa Kenyatta, but then, people laughed at Galileo, too.

    I think you are confusing linguistics with reliable history. It is true that the word “Swastika” is Indian in origin, but there is no definitive answer as to the source of the symbol itself. The only thing historians seem to agree upon is that it is Neolithic in origin, and was used at some point on every continent by almost every early culture.

    Just because a culture has stories that define itself doesn’t mean the concepts, myths, and ideologies weren’t borrowed from other cultures. The fact that India has contributed much to human culture is undeniable, and the sad part is, much has been lost in history (like the history of Mohenjo Daro). However, argue with facts, not by calling names. Ancient history is for the most part a matter of opinion slanted by cultural viewpoints. We can learn something from Ekowa, as well as you too. Argument is healthy, and stimulates learning. Approach it from that perspective, and everyone benefits.

    • I agree with Jonathan on the points he raised but I must point out that the earliest Swastika designs were found in Mezin, Ukraine, dating back to the Paleolithic period dating back 18,000 years. Swastika exists in many cultures and in many forms. The theory of it coming from basic human concepts of geometric shapes may indicate why its form is so wide spread.

    • hi, im very much looking forward 2to get the details of the back ground song for tis video clip introduction to lord shiva part1.
      i hope someone could assist me wit the answer thank you.

  3. Cheri Ahne Says:

    Twitter gave me a HUGE boost in the Google rankings

  4. Jr lawrence Says:

    it is clear to me that the writer of this article is not well informed about african history ,how can you attempt to interpret african history from the perspective of the aryan’s documentation of african history culture and civilization,my dear friend were the aryans always in india ,who are the sudriods or dalits where did they come from .why is the river ganges named after an ithiopian general and not an aryan king to this day.what does the word aryan mean ,dear friend you can not interpret indian[african] history from the perspective of an invading colonizing force . You are a bigot and you are presenting african history from an ill informed perspective,have you ever read the tomb and pyramid text of egypt i think not .And sanskrit wow dont even go there where did it originate and what people spoke that language , was hinduism the indus valley first religion ,what was the first people’s spiritual concept and where did it originate.question to which it is clear you do not have the answers to ,my friend if you should attempt to answer these question please do so without being a bigot and be a prudent symmetrical and open minded student .as a student of history and especially african and world history i would say no more nor would i attempt to engage the writer of this biogt article because this person is bias and from my perspective is not humbly willing to learn history from an unbiased point of view.i shall say no more about this misinformed misinterpreted misguided article thanks.

    • Aryan does not mean race or color.I find few African so obsessed with color that they have only skin color in mind.River ganges is named by the British not by any Indian.It is a British name.Shudra doesnot mean race or color.I have written an article on the meaning of the word Arya or Arya.You can check it in the same blog.

  5. Interesting article especially the Five Sacred Syllables in Om Namah Shivaya and the elements. Do the syllables represent the elements in that order? ie na = earth etc?

  6. this is really smtng vry devotional in knws the facts…

  7. abhijeet4288 Says:

    The only conspiracy made by foreign archeologists about Mohanjodaro was that they said it was copper age and iron was not yet invented .

  8. A total of 21 Prathamik Shiksha Vargas were held across Uttarakhand from December 26, 2008 to January 2, 2009. According to RSS Uttarakhand Prant Pracharak Shri Shiv Prakash some of the vargas were held in remote areas. Members of Prant Karyakarini attended all the camps. Shri Shiv Prakash himself attended ten camps. A total of 2,182 swayamsevaks from 700 places participated in the camps.

    Addressing the swayamsevaks at SGRR Inter College at Bhauwala in Dehradun, Shri Shiv Prakash said swayamsevaks are today engaged in various constructive activities. One of them is development of villages. He pointed out that swayamsevaks have adopted about 800 villages of the country for their total development. Swayamsevaks are striving hard to raise the standard of education and living and are disseminating awareness about the protection of environment there. The children who do not go to schools are inspired to go to schools. He emphasised the village temples should not merely be the place of worship but they should also be the place of infusing a sense of harmony into the people where people learn to co-operate one another.

    He said the Hindus should also embrace the Muslims whose ancestors were Hindu and a large section of them are willing to come back to their roots. He pointed out that about 15000 Muslims embraced Hinduism on December 25, 2008 in Agra and about 6000 Muslims were brought back to Hinduism at Roorkee in Haridwar last year. This process should go on. He said the yugdharma says the Hindus should accept the Muslims who want to come back to Hinduism.

  9. There are 50 Sulabh Shauchalayas (public toilets) in Delhi; all of them are cleaned and looked after by Brahmins (this very welcome public institution was started by a Brahmin). A far cry from the elitist image that Brahmins have!There are five to six Brahmins manning each Shauchalaya. They came to Delhi eight to ten years back looking for a source of income, as they were a minority in most of their villages, where Dalits are in majority (60 per cent to 65 per cent). In most villages in UP and Bihar, Dalits have a union which helps them secure jobs in villages.Most number of Brahmins working as coolies at Delhi’s railway stations.One of them, Kripa Shankar Sharma, says while his daughter is doing her Bachelors in Science he is not sure if she will secure a job.You also find Brahmin rickshaw pullers in Delhi. 50 per cent of Patel Nagar’s rickshaw pullers are Brahmins who like their brethren have moved to the city looking for jobs for lack of employment opportunities and poor education in their villages.Even after toiling the whole day, Vijay Pratap and Sidharth Tiwari, two Brahmin rickshaw pullers, say they are hardly able to make ends meet. These men make about Rs 100 to Rs 150 on an average every day from which they pay a daily rent of Rs 25 for their rickshaws and Rs 500 to Rs 600 towards the rent of their rooms which is shared by 3 to 4 people or their families.Most rickshaw pullers in Banaras are Brahmins.This reverse discrimination is also found in bureaucracy and politics. Most of the intellectual Brahmin Tamil class has emigrated outside Tamil Nadu. Only 5 seats out of 600 in the combined UP and Bihar assembly are held by Brahmins — the rest are in the hands of the Yadavs.400,000 Brahmins of the Kashmir valley, the once respected Kashmiri Pandits, now live as refugees in their own country, sometimes in refugee camps in Jammu and Delhi in appalling conditions. But who gives a damn about them? Their vote bank is negligible.And this is not limited to the North alone. 75 per cent of domestic help and cooks in Andhra Pradesh are Brahmins. A study of the Brahmin community in a district in Andhra Pradesh (Brahmins of India by J Radhakrishna, published by Chugh Publications) reveals that today all purohits live below the poverty line,who are the real Dalits of India.

    In fact, according to this study there has been an overall decline in the number of Brahmin students. With the average income of Brahmins being less than that of non-Brahmins, a high percentage of Brahmin students drop out at the intermediate level. In the 5 to 18 year age group, 44 per cent Brahmin students stopped education at the primary level and 36 per cent at the pre-matriculation level.The study also found that 55 per cent of all Brahmins lived below the poverty line — below a per capita income of Rs 650 a month. Since 45 per cent of the total population of India is officially stated to be below the poverty line it follows that the percentage of destitute Brahmins is 10 per cent higher than the all-India figure.According to the Andhra Pradesh study, the largest percentage of Brahmins today are employed as domestic servants. The unemployment rate among them is as high as 75 per cent. Seventy percent of Brahmins are still relying on their hereditary vocation. There are hundreds of families that are surviving on just Rs 500 per month as priests in various temples (Department of Endowments statistics).Priests are under tremendous difficulty today, sometimes even forced to beg for alms for survival. There are innumerable instances in which Brahmin priests who spent a lifetime studying Vedas are being ridiculed and disrespected.At Tamil Nadu’s Ranganathaswamy Temple, a priest’s monthly salary is Rs 300 (Census Department studies) and a daily allowance of one measure of rice. The government staff at the same temple receive Rs 2,500 plus per month. But these facts have not modified the priests’ reputation as ‘haves’ and as ‘exploiters.’ The destitution of Hindu priests has moved none, not even the parties known for Hindu sympathy.

    The tragedy of modern India is that the combined votes of Dalits/OBC and Muslims are enough for any government to be elected. The Congress quickly cashed in on it after Independence, but probably no other government than Sonia Gandhi’s has gone so far in shamelessly dividing Indian society for garnering votes.The Indian government gives Rs 1,000 crores (Rs 10 billion) for salaries of imams in mosques and Rs 200 crores (Rs 2 billion) as Haj subsidies. But no such help is available to Brahmins and upper castes. As a result, not only the Brahmins, but also some of the other upper castes in the lower middle class are suffering in silence today, seeing the minorities slowly taking control of their majority.Anti-Brahminism originated in, and still prospers in anti-Hindu circles. It is particularly welcome among Marxists, missionaries, Muslims, separatists and Christian-backed Dalit movements of different hues. When they attack Brahmins, their target is unmistakably Hinduism.

    So the question has to be asked: are the Brahmins (and other upper castes) of yesterday becoming the Dalits of today?

  10. Brahmins are still suffering due to actions of the selfish and glory seeking leftist bramnins who came to power after Independence its high time that brahmins start getting vocal. Brahmins are by no means minority. There are enough of us spread all over India. This country’s culture and heritage was shaped by brahmins and non brahmins should be grateful for that.Maybe it was our ancestors single largest mistake that they were always King makers but not kings. India is nothing without Brahmins

  11. Brahmin and Kshatriya communities lived for the common good and focused their energies and intellects to bring about common good. In return, the rest of the society took care of their needs by providing for them by giving what is surplus in the society. Kshatriyas served as to how modern Governments serve. Brahmins focused on Spiritual and religious aspects, and also served as advisors to Kshatriyas. The traditional functions of various people served the Indian society well. The problems started after Indian kingdoms fell to the invaders and the nobility, for most part, was usurped by the invading classes. Both Brahmins and Kshatriyas had to compromise. Several converted, inter-married, learned new languages, and trades and adapted to the new Order. The emerging competition perhaps forced Brahmins to insulate themselves and became more secretive. This secretiveness perhaps was at the root of many superstitions.
    About Women: If you lose women, as they are the source of the next generation, you lose your community. Brahmins have been over protective of their women for this reason and must have imposed a lot of restrictions through the ages. However, due to the new found freedom in a democratic polity, some women may be rebelling.

  12. Indias freedom war was fought by Brahmins and they were prominent, like Sawarkar, Tilak Chaphekar, ans so on.But political people do not want to tress on that due to there political survival. Brahmins in nature are soft and others have taken disadvantage of the same. Brahmins need to be strong enough atleast vocal and should be ready to face the consequenses. This in turn will yield good results for the country itselof. There are many saints also like Dnyaneshwar, Ramdas, Eknath the list is unending.

  13. Hinduism neither prescribes nor proscribes worship of images (Skt. murti, or “idols” as seen by some non-Hindus). Although Hinduism is commonly represented by such anthropomorphic religious icons such as murtis, aniconism is equally represented with such abstract symbols of God such as the Shiva linga and the saligrama.Furthermore, Hindus have found it easier to focus on anthropomorphic icons, as Lord Krishna said in the Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 12, Verse 5,“ It is much more difficult to focus on God as the unmanifested than God with form, due to human beings having the need to perceive via the senses.

  14. The Christian view of idolatry may generally be divided into two general categories. The Catholic/Orthodox view and the Fundamentalist view. The Puritan Protestant groups adopted a similar view to Judaism, denouncing all forms of religious objects whether in three dimensional or two dimensional form. The problem springs from differences in interpretation of the Decalogue commonly known as the Ten Commandments. “You shall have no other gods before me. You shall not make for yourself a graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; you shall not bow down to them or serve them; for I the Lord your God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children to the third and the fourth generation of those who hate me, but showing steadfast love to thousands of those who love me and keep my commandments.” (RSV Exodus 20:3-6).The Roman Catholic and particularly the Orthodox Churches cite St. John of Damascus’ work “On the Divine Image” to defend the use of icons. He wrote in direct response to the iconoclastic controversy that began in the eighth century by the Byzantine emperor Leo III and continued by his successor Constantine V. St. John maintains that depicting the invisible God is indeed wrong, but he argues that the incarnation, where “the Word became flesh” (John 1:14), indicates that the invisible God became visible, and as a result it is permissible to depict Jesus Christ. He argues: “When He who is bodiless and without form… existing in the form of God, empties Himself and takes the form of a servant in substance and in stature and is found in a body of flesh, then you draw His image…”

  15. There are life manifestation, according to Vedic literature, that some of the life, they are coming from eggs, some of the life, they are coming from perspiration, some of the lives come from a seed, and some of the life comes from embryo. This is all stated there. Sveda-ja, udbi-ja, anda-ja, jarayu-ja. They already there. Jarayu means embryo, and sveda means perspiration. Life is everywhere. When they take little advantage, they come out, manifest. You will find even on the pavement, footpath, as soon as there is crack, some grass is coming out. So life is everywhere, it is struggling, and as soon as there is favorable circumstances, they come in a form. That’s it. Life is not created, na jayate. Read Bhagavad-gita. Na jayate: “Life is never created.” It is existing eternally. Therefore it is said, na jayate. So unfortunate rascals, they do not take advantage of Bhagavad-gita and making research. So we want to stop this rascaldom. They are trying to create life, and it is stated in the Bhagavad-gita, na jayate: “It is never created.” It is already there. Simply it is coming out, being manifest by different bodies, 8,400,000 forms. That I was explaining last night. According to his desire. The life is already there, and according to his desire, he is coming out in different forms. That is going on. This is a false theory, that chemical can create life. It is nonsense. Life is never created, life is already there. God is already there, and the part and particles, molecules, life, was already there. Na jayate mriyate va kadacit. This word is used, kadacit, “at any time.” So we have got perfect knowledge. Why should we say, “Yes,” with these rascals? We have got perfect knowledge.

  16. Babasaheb Ambedkar was an illustrious figure in Indian politics and the chief architect of the Indian Constitution. He was extremely critical of the Muslim Caste System and their practices, quoting that “Within these groups there are castes with social precedence of exactly the same nature as one finds among the Hindus but worse in numerous ways”. He was critical of how the Ashrafs regarded the Ajlaf and Arzal as “worthless” and the fact that Muslims tried to sugarcoat the sectarian divisions by using euphemisms like “brotherhood” to describe them. He was also critical of the precept of literalism of scripture among Indian Muslims that led them to keep the Muslim Caste system rigid and discriminatory. He decried against the approval of Shariah to Muslim casteism. It was based on superiority of foreign elements in society which would ultimately lead to downfall of local Dalits. This tragedy would be much more harsher than Hindus who are ethnically related to and supportive of Dalits. This Arabian supremacy in Indian Muslims accounted for its equal disapproval by high and low caste Hindus during 1300 years of Islamic presence in India. He condemned the Indian Muslim Community of being unable to reform like Muslims in other countries like Turkey did during the early decades of the twentieth century.
    Pakistani-American sociologist Ayesha Jalal writes, in her book, “Democracy and Authoritarianism in South Asia”, that “Despite its egalitarian principles, Islam in South Asia historically has been unable to avoid the impact of class and caste inequalities. As for Hinduism, the hierarchical principles of the Brahmanical social order have always been contested from within Hindu society, suggesting that equality has been and continues to be both valued and practiced in Hinduism.”.

  17. How the Ayodhya verdict plays out in Pakistan
    October 01, 2010 18:31 IST Hamid Mir is executive editor of Geo TV in Pakistan

    Pakistani peacenik Hamid Mir’s singular idea to ensure extremists in his country do not retaliate over the Ayodhya verdict.

    Why are so many Pakistanis demonstrating against an India in court’s verdict on the Babri Mosque issue? It’s a question I have been pondering ever since I saw protest rallies in Karachi and Lahore on television channels immediately after the verdict of the Allahabad High Court on September 30. Many Pakistanis feel this verdict is not ‘legal’ but ‘political’. I was disturbed to watch a late-night TV show on September 30 in which a friend claimed, “no Hindu temple had ever came under attack in Pakistan, but Hindus have destroyed many mosques in India”.

    I remember dozens of Hindu temples did come under attack in Pakistan after the demolition of the Babri mosque in India in 1992. If that demolition was wrong, then attacks on Hindu temples in Pakistan, were wrong as well. And we should not try and hide our wrongdoings under the cover of the Allahabad High Court verdict.

    Luckily enough, there are some bold and brave analysts in Pakistan, who did say we should not play politics in the name of the Babri mosque, but most Pakistani TV channels did not behave like Indian TV channels after the 26/11 Mumbai [ Images ] attacks.

    This is the first time that the Pakistani media did not attempt to spread hatred against Hindus. In fact, the coverage of Pakistan’s biggest private news channel Geo TV was very balanced. Geo TV highlighted the views of all the three judges on the bench of Allahabad High Court including one Muslim, Justice Sibghatullah Khan, who also favoured the division of the land among Hindus and Muslims.

    A majority of Pakistani Muslims belong to the Sunni Barelvi school of thought. The most respected Sunni Barelvi scholar Mufti Muneebur Rehman appeared on Geo TV and said that the Allahabad High Court verdict was political, but appealed to Indian Muslims that, “they should control their sentiments and they should avoid violence in the name of Islam”.

    Rehman should also appeal to Pakistani Muslims that not play into the hands of those who are trying to start violence in Pakistan in the name of the Babri Mosque.

    I remember the attacks against Hindu temples in Pakistan after the demolition of the Babri Masjid in 1992 and I covered many attacks in Lahore as a young reporter. Extremist groups in Pakistan fully exploited the tragedy and in fact, were the main beneficiaries of the dispute because they tried to give an impression that all the Indian Hindus were enemies of Indian Muslims, which was not a fact. The Babri Masjid dispute was the tool of many religious groups to politick and a favorite subject of many writers and journalists in Pakistan till 2001.

    But 9/11 changed the world and the focus of Pakistani extremist groups shifted from India to the US. The Babri dispute lost importance in Pakistan after the attack of Pakistan army on Lal Masjid in Islamabad in 2007. A majority of Pakistani Muslims rightly or wrongly felt that Pervez Musharraf created the theatre where the drama of the Lal Masjid operation was used to divert the attention of common Pakistanis from the lawyers’ movement on then, in support of the deposed Chief Justice of Pakistan.

    I remember many Muslim scholars in 2007 said they always condemned extremist Hindus who attacked Babri Masjid, but could say little when the Pakistan army attacked a masjid in Islamabad in the name of war against terror.

    The Lal Masjid operation created more extremism in Pakistan and was a turning point in our history. Extremists began suicide attacks against security forces all over the country and even attacking those mosques where officials of security forces offered prayers. I can never forget the images of destroyed mosques in Swat, Buner ,Dir, Khyber and other places in Pakistan, destroyed by Muslims not Hindus. Most of these mosques became targets of suicide bombers and some were destroyed due to fights between militants and security forces.

    How can I forget the images of Pradlane mosque in Rawalpindi attacked by bearded Muslims the Taliban took responsibility for the attack. We must admit that more mosques were destroyed in Pakistan by so-called Muslim militants as compared to mosques destroyed in India by non-Muslims. Let the Indian Muslims and Hindus resolve their dispute through legal recourse. We must not politick in the name of the Babri masjid.

    So, what should we do as Pakistani Muslims? We must try to give more legal, political and moral protection to our minorities. I have already suggested to friends in the government and opposition parties that we should take more care of Pakistani Hindus, Sikhs and Christians.

    We must allow them to build as many temples and churches they so want. We must discourage the powerful land mafia in Pakistan, which always grab lands of Hindu temples and Christian churches in areas like Sind and Central Punjab .When we give them more protection, Indians will also do likewise.

    Pakistanis should secure their mosques because those are the targets of Muslim extremists, not Hindus.

    Extremism is a way of thinking. Extremists have no religion, but sometimes act in the name of Islam, sometimes in the name of Hindu dharma and sometimes in the name of Christianity. We must condemn all.

    The best way to condemn extremism is to build a Hindu temple in Pakistan in the name of the Babri mosque demolished in India. We must not forget that Zaheerudin Babar built not only mosques, but Hindu temples as well, across India. Can’t we build one Hindu temple in his name? It will give a very positive message across the border.

    When Indian Hindus demolished one Babri Mosque in 1992, Pakistanis retaliated by attacking many Hindu temples in Pakistan. When an Indian court divided the land of the Babri masjid among Hindus and Muslims in 2010, Pakistanis should not retaliate but built a Hindu temple instead. It will not be a sign of weakness, but a goodwill gesture and Indians can truly believe Pakistan is changing and should also change their way of thinking.

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